

Educational Research
Many new teaching approaches involving Active Learning (such as ConceivingDesigningImplementingOperating (CDIO), Problem Based Learning (PBL) and ICT in Teaching & Learning) were incorporated into all mathematics, physics, and IT modules offered by MS to enhance student learning. Action Research (AR) was identified in our school framework as a core activity since Academic Year 2008/09 Semester 1 to help staff implement and assess the new teaching approaches.
Below are some of the projects we embarked on:
Year 2015
A Study on Learning Mathematics with a Buddy and a Qualitative Metasynthesis on the Effectiveness of Peer Instruction in Past Studies (2008/09  2012/13)
Linda Tan, YawChee Ping Yeun
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2015)
This paper discusses the effectiveness of peer involvement in the learning process. There are two parts to this paper. The first part presents an action research project on collaborative learning using buddy method. The second part of this paper consolidates, compares and contrasts seven collaborative learning projects (the first part inclusive) done by colleagues in the School of Mathematics and Science in five years (2008/09 – 2012/13). The findings from these projects that involved over a thousand students from four different schools in Singapore Polytechnic (SP) were synthesized. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations to guide instructors who are keen in adopting teaching strategies that involve peer instruction.

Flipping an Engineering Mathematics Classroom
Lee Hwee Theng, Sharon Quek, Alvin Ng
(The 9th International Symposium on Advances in Technology Education)
As technology becomes ubiquitous in our lives and information becomes readily available via internet other than the classrooms, the practice of facetoface lectures becomes less valid in educational settings. Educators are more aware of the deficiencies of such lectures, whose main aim is to transmit information, and are trying to shift towards instructional strategies that will encourage student engagement and active learning. One of these strategies is the Flipped Classroom pedagogy. The essence of this pedagogy is to move direct instruction online and out of classroom, creating space to promote discourse and problemsolving in the classroom. In effect, it requires a rethink of when resources to provide guidance and support to learners should be provided. Do learners need such support when they are passively listening to a lecture or when they are attempting to solve problems using the new concepts learnt? In the Flipped Classroom model, it is believed that it should be the latter.
In Singapore Polytechnic, the School of Mathematics & Science “flipped” an entire engineering mathematics module and piloted it on selected diploma courses. Lesson packages were developed and deployed via the polytechnic’s learning management system. Each of these packages consisted of short online video lectures, lesson plan, inclass activities, class quiz and tutorial problem sets. Students are tasked to view preassigned online video lectures on a weekly basis before attending tutorial sessions. In the classroom, they checked their understanding through quizzes, discussed and collaborated on activities with their peers, and problemsolved the tutorial set. For evaluation, data was collected in the forms of student surveys, student interviews, lecturer perceptions and assessment score analysis. The summative assessment scores did not consistently show significant differences between the “flipped” and the traditional groups, however there was a significant increase in mean scores of student perceptions of mathematics lessons that serve to measure student engagement and selfdirected learning attitudes before and after “flipping”. Both student interviews and lecturer perceptions revealed that the new pedagogy is a welcomed change to how mathematics lessons are conducted. With the largely positive findings, the school intends to scale up to extend the pedagogy to more mathematics modules. Future directions of the project can include exploration of ways to evaluate the pedagogy from the perspective of lecturers and not just learners. The school can also consider sharing its experience and expertise to help other schools and institutions adopt this pedagogical model, whenever and wherever appropriate.

Impact of Regular Formative Assessment on Students' Intrinsic Motivation
Tang ULiang
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2015)
We investigate the impact of attaching a grade to regular assessment on student motivation in learning mathematics. In our study, a series of Socrative^{[1]} quizzes were administered to students as a means for them to conduct selfassessment on their own learning. These results of this test did not contribute to their final grade and consisted of questions of varying levels of difficulty. Conventional wisdom has it that because these tests were ungraded, students would not treat these work seriously as they would graded work. However, the findings of this study disputes this belief. We found that for good students, they treated this test seriously and in fact indicated that they would not enjoy the test if it contributed to their overall.
Socrative is an online quizzing platform. It can be accessed at www.socrative.com. It is available as an app on mobile devices making it an ideal tool to conduct snap quizzes and surveys.

Piloting Learning Analytics in the Mathematics Classroom via LearningANTS
Edna Chan, Lai Say Beng, May Lim, Soh Ying Ying, TanYeoh Ah Choo
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2015)
Students at Singapore Polytechnic (SP) have diverse mathematical aptitude. Academicallyweak students need much handholding while those who are academicallystrong may get bored if not inspired. As such, there is a limit to the extent lecturers can offer effective help to students in a class. This paper presents the School of Mathematics & Science (MS) experience on piloting learning analytics in the Mathematics classroom via an online differentiated learning system called LearningANTS. Appropriate assessments are incorporated in this system to assess how well learning has taken place. The system then deploys individualized future learning paths for each student, based on the student’s learning history to meet prespecified learning objectives. With readily available information from the student reports generated by LearningANTS, lecturers can provide timely intervention and offer effective help to students. A pilot run was carried out in AY1415S2 with 96 firstyear students in SP reading the Bridging Mathematics 1 (MS011Q) module^{[2]}. The findings of our research, solicited from a student survey and lecturers’ observations were generally positive. By addressing the key issues identified in our research, we can improve the design of the system and refine our strategies to benefit a bigger cohort of students in the future.
This is a bridging module designed to help Institute of Technical Education (ITE) upgraders better cope with the rigor and demands of their firstyear Engineering Mathematics I (EM I) module at SP.

Year 2014
An Exploration of Students' Attitude and Opinion towards Calculator Use in Engineering Mathematics
Quek Wei Ching, KokMak Chew Pheng
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2014)
Students enrolled into the Polytechnic came with a variety of calculator models. Having a standard model with capabilities similar to those of the CASIO fx991ES potentially allows us to add breadth and depth to our curriculum. There is then a need to understand students’ attitude and opinion towards the integration of calculators in Engineering Mathematics. A questionnaire consisting of 10 Likertscale items and 10 openended items was administered to a sample of 141 students from 2 different diplomas in Academic Year 2012/13 Semester 2. Results showed that students were generally supportive of calculator use in Mathematics, though opinions differed somewhat among students from the 2 different diplomas, possibly due to the instructor effect. Also there is evidence that better performing students prefer to have the calculator banned in certain sections of tests/examinations, possibly out of the belief that emphasis on the fundamentals should also be valued. These results were, however, likely to be of limited generalizability due to the small sample size, its unrepresentativeness, and some deficiencies in the survey instrument.

Learning Together or Kagan Structures? A Comparison of Both Approaches in a Polytechnic Context
Tang ULiang
(The 8th International Symposium on Advances in Technology Education)
This paper is a report of a comparative study of two approaches or philosophies of cooperative learning in the context of mathematics education. Here we define cooperative learning as the instructional use of small groups so that students work together to maximize their own and each other’s learning. While there are many approaches to cooperative learning, we will focus on two broad based ideas given the scope and limitations of this study. These two approaches which we are looking into will be termed Learning Together and Kagan structures. Learning Together is advocated by David and Roger Johnson while Kagan structures is another approach pioneered by Spencer Kagan. These two ideas have a rich history of both practise and research. Thus, it is the intention of the author to assess the suitability in implementing the ideas of these two philosophies in developing a cooperative classroom environment in the context of Singapore Polytechnic. Our method was to implement and execute activities aligned with each of these philosophies one semester at a time. Data comprising test results, student feedback and classroom observations were collected and these compared with each another. We have completed the first phase which comprised of planning and running Learning Together activities. These are classroom activities where students are assigned a group and told to work together to achieve a predetermined goal which is crucial for their learning. The second phase of the study is comprised of implementing Kagan structures in the course of normal classroom instruction. This consists of adapting and implementing one structure per lesson during the course of the semester. These structures are not developed from scratch but adapted from a list of structures available online and from books. We will assess and compare Learning Together and Kagan structures based on four criteria which are relevant to the polytechnic context. These three criteria for suitability are how it impacts 1) student performance in their written assessments, 2) feedback of students and the 3) challenges faced in implementing each framework in the classroom. Our recommendations will be based on outcomes from the two phases of implementations.

Singapore Polytechnic Engineering Students' Concept Image and Concept Definition of Mathematical Function
Tang ULiang, Chia Hui Teng
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2014)
The concept of mathematical function is central in the field of engineering. Without good conceptual understanding of function, engineering students can neither interpret, explain nor predict reallife occurrences. Drawing on studies in how students think about mathematical function, we build our case on the importance of examining students’ concept image and concept definition in an attempt to understand students’ mental “baggage” prior enrolling in an advance mathematics module. Due to the constraint of space, selected findings from a larger study conducted on 149 students from three engineering schools in Singapore Polytechnic are discussed in this paper. We conclude this paper with a reflection as the findings from this study and the review of the literature help us as educators make sense of what we observe in class.

Sir, Can You Teach Us Again Next Semester?
Lai Say Beng
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2014)
This paper is a reflection of my experiences in teaching Engineering Mathematics to students at Singapore Polytechnic (SP). It highlights some of the interesting observations I gathered from teaching polytechnic students during my twenty years in this institution. In this paper, I will be sharing the outcomes of various classroom management skills and teaching pedagogies that I have adopted in my lessons. These approaches and strategies, though geared towards the teaching of Engineering Mathematics, are nevertheless applicable to the teaching of polytechnic students in general. I hope this sharing will benefit the reader who, like me, aspires to make our teaching more captivating and enriching for the next generation of engineers.

Synchronous Learning Using Microsoft Lync 2010
Babulakshmanan Ramachandran
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2014)
We report the implementation of synchronous learning using Microsoft Lync 2010 in physics lessons (module MS2127) during the home based learning week, which is a requirement of the Enterprise Risk Management exercise in Singapore Polytechnic. We share our experience right from the preparation stage to the execution of lessons. We find that the features provided in Microsoft Lync 2010 help to promote an active, interactive and reflective learning environment. The student survey results as well as oral student interviews indicate that features in Lync are easy to use and learning takes place effectively though students still prefer facetoface teaching. We also discuss how Lync can be useful to supplement and complement regular class room learning, aside from ensuring teaching schedules are not disrupted in unforeseen circumstances.

Year 2013
Introducing Cooperative Learning in a Mechanics of Materials Module
Norman Lee
(ERAS 2013, Singapore)
This study describes the implementation and evaluation of groupbased cooperative learning activities during tutorial sessions in a secondyear technical module in Singapore Polytechnic (SP) for a sciencebased diploma course. This was done over one semester in 2012. Such pedagogy is not widely used in SP as most modules employ the traditional lecture and tutorial format. This study focuses on students’ perception of these activities, and the role that lecturers have to play during these activities. To collect data, the lecturer performed regular sweeps of the classroom and recorded his observations. An anonymous survey was also administered at the end of the module. It was found that students reported that these activities enabled them to learn better and increased their enjoyment of the module. The classroom observations indicate that there were frequent instances of students helping each other, with the lecturer intervening to correct misconceptions or to help the entire group progress.

Challenging and Nonroutine Questions in Diploma Mathematics and Science Modules: A Polytechnic's Experience
Lee Hwee Theng, Chia Hui Teng
(AAERAAPERA 2012, Australia; Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2013)
This paper discusses the implementation of challenging and nonroutine questions (CNRQs), in our school’s mathematics and science tutorial exercises and examination papers aimed at training students to attain higher levels of understanding and greater proficiency in the subject matter. This assessment initiative was carried out with the belief that assessment drives students' learning because "what is considered important to (be) assessed will strongly determine what is considered important to learn" (Mclellan, 2001, p. 309) and when assessment is used appropriately, it can play a powerful role in teaching students better (Popham, 2011). After two semesters of implementation, eight lecturers' and 253 students' perceptions on the assessment initiative were solicited. Examination questions were analysed using the Taxonomy Table to reflect on lecturers' perceptions of CNRQs as exemplified in the assessment items. The findings showed that all the lecturers were generally supportive of the initiative but they faced implementation challenges. While many academically able students welcomed CNRQs in their modules, the less able students expressed learning anxiety in mathematics and science classrooms. A great majority of CNRQs were classified as those requiring Cognitive Process Apply and Knowledge of Procedural and Conceptual in the Taxonomy Table. Four implementation challenges identified will be discussed followed by a set of recommendations to further improve our assessment initiative.

Enhancing Learning of Quadratic Functions and Graphs through Active Learning Activities in LAMS Environment
Lai Say Beng, Tan Yeo Khon, Chan Keong Chee, Chee Chin Yi, Yeo Soo Ngoh
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2013)
Students nowadays are less attentive in class and are easily distracted from their classroom learning. Lecturers in Singapore Polytechnic are constantly looking out for innovative ways to capture the students’ attention and enhance their learning process. This paper presents our experience in adopting the Learning Activity Management System (LAMS) to facilitate active learning. LAMS is a tool for designing, managing and delivering online collaborative learning activities. It provides a highly intuitive visual authoring environment for teachers to create sequences of learning activities that students can attempt in a small group setting. Our study was carried out across two semesters with 100 firstyear MAE students taking the Basic Mathematics (MS6140) module. The findings of our research were solicited from a pretest, a posttest and students’ survey. Our findings indicate that students are open to learning in the LAMS environment, albeit some technical problems that arose during the trials. By addressing the key issues identified in our research, we can refine our strategies and adapt this learning approach to benefit a bigger cohort of students in the future.

Item Analysis on MCQs
KokMak Chew Peng, Lee Hwee Theng, Chia Hui Teng
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2013)
Constructing relatively good quality test questions (or items) is known to be a time consuming task for teachers. Availability of a ready pool of good quality items helps reduce workload so that teachers can concentrate more on teaching. This project attempts to construct a pool of multiplechoice questions on various topics for Year 1 Engineering students. A collection of 20 multiplechoice items was constructed and administered to a group of 348 first year engineering students taking MS4121 and MS6161. Item analysis was conducted after the test and the results used to identify flaws in the question, possible gaps in instruction and/or curriculum content, and other issues.

Adopting Online Platforms to Complement Facetoface Teaching and Learning
Chia Hui Teng, Edna Chan, Lai Say Beng, TanYeoh Ah Choo, Sharon Quek
(Redesigning Pedagogy International Conference 2013, Singapore; Singapore Polytechnic eLearning Award 2013)
One of the desired student outcomes in the 21st century is for students to be selfdirected learners and to thrive in this globalized world we live in, they must also have good information and communication skills (MOE Singapore, 2010). This pilot study explores the possibilities of tapping on readily available online platforms to facilitate independent learning. Two important principles guided our study – innovation and feedback. The willingness to try new methods ignites the excitement in students to learn. Realtime feedback has also proven to be a powerful tool that increases achievement (Hattie, 1999). As such, an inhouse developed interactive electronic book (ebook) on the topic ‘Counting Techniques’ was adopted. In addition, online communication tools such as AnyMeeting, Facebook, ooVoo, TeamViewer8 and Whatsapp were set up for students to obtain feedback from their lecturers. Ninetynine firstyear Diploma in Aeronautical Engineering students and four lecturers from Singapore Polytechnic were involved in this study. Students were given approximately two weeks to learn 'Counting Techniques' via the ebook, after which they communicated online with their lecturers to clarify their doubts or to reinforce their understanding of this topic. Students also turned in individual assignments which were graded and returned. A paperandpencil quiz was later conducted to gauge students' mastery of this topic. Finally, a survey was administered to gather feedback from students on their learning experiences. The survey findings indicated evidence that suggest a strong positive correlation between students' rated capability to learn this topic independently and their rated confidence in the knowledge gained, and a moderately strong correlation between their perceived usefulness of the online meetings and their rated confidence in the knowledge gain. A closer analysis on students' solutions to some of the quiz questions revealed that while most students were able to solve similar questions found in the ebook, there were some misconceptions that surfaced when they attempted nonroutine questions. The penultimate section of our study offers discussions on our findings as well as lecturers' reflections on their learning experiences with students. The paper concludes with possible future research arising from this study.

Polytechnic Students' Notions of Mathematical Functions
Tang ULiang, Chia Hui Teng
(ERAS 2013, Singapore)
Mathematical functions play an important role in the field of engineering. This pilot study was aimed at exploring students’ notion of mathematical functions conceived prior to enrolling and during their enrolment in an advanced mathematics module, and how these notions are link to the kind of responses to an assessment item. Findings this study provided evidence of misconceptions in their understanding of functions and the analysis of assessment scripts showed that students had trouble interpreting mathematics functional notations. From an informal postsurvey of the first author’s own class, it was noted that students retained a prefunction level of understanding after 3 weeks of instruction. This paper discusses possible impacts of the findings and concludes with a hypothesis to explain the results of this study.

An Exploration of Students' Attitude and Opinion towards Calculator Use in Engineering Mathematics
KokMak Chew Pheng, Quek Wei Ching
(ATCM 2013, Mumbai)
Students enrolled into the Polytechnic came with a variety of calculator models. Having a standard model with capabilities similar to those of the CASIO fx991ES potentially allows us to add breadth and depth to our curriculum. There is then a need to understand students’ attitude and opinion towards the integration of calculators in Engineering Mathematics. A questionnaire consisting of 10 Likertscale items and 10 openended items was administered to a sample of 141 students from 2 different diplomas in Academic Year 2012/13 Semester 2. Results showed that students were generally supportive of calculator use in Mathematics, though opinions differed somewhat among students from the 2 different diplomas, possibly due to the instructor effect. Also there is evidence that better performing students prefer to have the calculator banned in certain sections of tests/examinations, possibly out of the belief that emphasis on the fundamentals should also be valued. These results were, however, likely to be of limited generalizability due to the relatively small sample size, its unrepresentativeness, and some deficiencies in the survey instrument.

Year 2012
Impact of Using Scientific Calculator in Examination of Engineering Mathematics
Quek Wei Ching, KokMak Chew Pheng
(ACTM 2012, Thailand; Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2013)
Advanced Scientific Calculators such as CASIO fx991ES has been available and approved for Singapore Polytechnic Examinations for many years. However, many students are not aware of the capabilities of these calculators, especially the first year engineering students who are still used to the scientific calculators approved for Olevel examinations. The author believe that the “newly” available features in advanced scientific calculators can help students to speed up tedious computations and improved accuracy during examinations. The authors decided to explore methods of enhancing students’ understanding of such humble tool. In addition, it is hoped that through these research, teaching staff will get to reflect on curriculum and assessment.

A Game on Profiling Learning Styles
Edna Chan
(GameOn Asia 2012, Japan)
Learning Styles refer to the way one learns, specifically, how one begins to perceive, process, and retain new information. Recognizing students’ preferred learning styles can be advantageous. Teachers can leverage on this knowledge to provide more effective teaching for their students. Similarly, students aware of their preferred learning styles are able to improve their learning achievements. We propose profiling students’ learning styles through computer games. Computer games provide interesting capabilities (e.g., immediate feedback, adaptive progression) to allow for the reconstruction of learning environments in an interactive stimulating environment. In this paper, we describe an educational game that we have developed for the purpose of profiling players’ learning styles based on the FelderSilverman learning styles model. The game was tested to determine how motivated students were playing the game. Results of the test session are shared in this paper.

Incorporating Problem Based Learning in Physics Module of a First Year Diploma Course
Norman Lee
(The 3rd International PBL Symposium 2012, Singapore)
We report our experience incorporating a problembased learning (PBL) component into a firstyear physics module in a diploma course at Singapore Polytechnic (SP). In this pilot run, the aim of the PBL was to help students synthesize concepts in mechanics. The problem was presented through a video trigger and scaffolding was provided through a worksheet. A video of a car crash test was used, and students were tasked to write a paragraph describing the physics concepts that occur in the video. A timetabled twohour tutorial session was allocated, and one of the two classes in this module was chosen. The other class acted as a control group. The effectiveness of the PBL was examined through the lecturer’s observation, student responses in the worksheet, survey response and performance on a quiz question administered two weeks after the PBL. Analysis of student responses in the worksheet provided insights on their learning difficulties. Based on the observation of the lecturer conducting the PBL and the student participation and survey response, we find that the students enjoyed the PBL. From the quiz administered after the PBL, there is statistically no difference in the performance of students. We also reflect how this PBL can be improved by rewording the problem statement and some of the worksheet questions, how the PBL can better fit into the constraints of the timetable and the teaching schedule at SP.

Active Learning in Singapore Polytechnic Mathematics Course
Chin Li Cheong
(The 3rd International PBL Symposium 2012, Singapore)
As the use of social media is getting very popular with the students, the team posited that there must be a way for social media to be used in education. We did a simple pilot study to investigate the possibility of using social media in the Mathematics classrooms. This study involves two groups of Year One students from the Diploma in Civil Engineering with Business (DCEB) courses taking the Basic Mathematics 1 module in Singapore Polytechnic. Video clips showing the solutions for tutorial questions on the topic on Binomial Theorem were created using the software Camtasia, and uploaded to a video sharing platform – YouTube. A FaceBook page called Basic Maths Warrior was then created to house all the links to the different video clips for easy accessibility as almost all students have an active FaceBook account which they accessible frequently.. Students were told to bring their laptop and smart phones to the class. The assigned teacher of the class acted as the facilitator, and members of the research team observed the proceedings. To examine the effectiveness of the activity, a questionnaire was administered to the students and the observers. Students reported that the video clips were helpful to them during the tutorials, while we also noticed that the use of video clip is an interesting approach that allows the students to learn at their own pace. Hence, the use of video clips in social media platforms shows promise in enabling a studentcentric approach in the tutorial classes. We plan to continue this in future runs of the module, and explore other topics for which this might be suitable.

Teaching to the Test: The MS Experience
KokMak Chew Pheng, Chia Hui Teng, YawChee Ping Yeun
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2012)
"Teaching to the test" does not seem to be a phrase we are familiar with in the School of Mathematics & Science (MS), much less the negative consequences these practices can have on our students. This report attempts to investigate some common teaching practices and classroom instructions in MS, whether they contribute towards teaching to the test, and the associated factors. This was conducted through an anonymous selfreport questionnaire administered to 50 colleagues in MS. Results show that teaching practices such as giving mock tests, giving a revision tutorial with clone items, etc are not uncommon. We speculated that some colleagues may not perceive some of these practices as being inappropriate. The most common seems to be drilling students using past year test papers, with 90.3% of participants at some point in time reported having engaged in it to varying degrees. Evidence gathered using Chisquare tests regarding the contributing factors, such as the various types of pressure experienced by staff, is, however, not forthcoming, probably due to the small sample size used.

Develop Students' Problem Solving and Logic Reasoning Skills in an Introductory Programming Module for Engineering Students
Sharon Xu, Ong Joo Ling, Toh Hiap Aik
(Singapore Polytechnic Journal of Teaching Practice Award 2012; ISATE 2012, Japan)
Many students experience difficulties in learning programming. A study team in School of Mathematics & Science was formed to review and revamp an introductory computer programming module (MS6506) offered to engineering students, in order to enhance students' problem solving and critical thinking skills, and to make learning programming more effective and enjoyable. The team reviewed the learning outcomes, teaching pedagogies, materials and tools, and assessments with a view to focus on the following graduate attribute areas: Competency in basic programming, Creativity, Innovation and Enterprise and Personal and Social Effectiveness. Using a broad constructivist perspective, four main learning approaches were implemented: discovery learning activities for students to explore the new concepts; differentiated learning activities to stretch the more capable students; collaborative learning activity in the form of a problembased learning assignment and knowledge sharing on Facebook social networking platform; and selfdirected learning activities involving short openbook quizzes for each topic to guide and assess students’ learning. This paper discusses the design of various constructivist learning activities and how these activities, together with the assessments and tools were utilized to motivate the learning and facilitate the achievement of desired learning outcomes, especially in the area of problemsolving and critical thinking.

Students' SenseMaking of Graphical Representation in a Basic Statistics Module
Chia Hui Teng
(ICME 2012, Korea)
This paper discusses how a group of 86 engineering students compared the sales performances of two motorcar companies which were presented using frequency polygons. Two levels of analyses were performed on students’ responses. First a hierarchical task analysis was used to categorize students’ responses after which the Structure of the Observe Learning Outcomes (SOLO) taxonomy was used to analyse the quality of their responses. The finding shows that more than 80% of the students were able to identify relevant data in the task but failed to link data to provide coherent support for their answer.

Year 2011
Do Interactive Computer Programs Improve Student Understanding of Free Body Diagrams?
Norman Lee
(ISATE 2011, Singapore)
We describe a new method of teaching freebody diagram through computer programs using Toolbook. The students’ response measured through a Likert scale indicates that they perceive it as useful. Statistically, there is no difference in the performance in the mid semester test and final exam between students who went through this method visàvis those who did not go through this method. We also present some difficulties faced by students in freebody diagrams. We also find that there are still some misconceptions that remain as evident from the performance of the final examination. We outline some future work that could be done to help students overcome difficulties in freebody diagrams.



 